Directions: Read the first 4 chapters of the Logic Course on lucidphilosophy.com (arguments, fallacies, Socratic Method). I also recommend completing the “fun quizzes” on lucidphilosophy.com. Next, answer the following questions.
1. True or False. In Philosophy and logic, an argument is simply a disagreement.
2. “Per capita income is a more reliable indicator than household income. Since that article is using household income, that article is not a reliable overview of the economy.” What are the premises and conclusion in this argument? (identify the parts of this argument).
3. True or False. There are three ways arguments go bad: faulty premises, bad conclusions, or a faulty inference.
4. “All great sumo wrestlers are beautiful. Bob is a great sumo wrestler. Therefore, Bob is beautiful.”
Does the above argument have a good/valid inference? Explain your answer. *Notice the question is about the inference, not the truth or falsity of the premises.
5. True or False. If all the premises of an argument are true, then the argument must be good.
6. “If there is a devil then unnecessary suffering exists. Unnecessary suffering exists. Therefore, there is a devil.”
Are the premises of this argument reasonable? Is the inference to the conclusion good/valid? Explain your answer.
7. Give your own example of the appeal to nature fallacy (be creative). Explain why it is an appeal to nature fallacy.
8. Give an example of the post hoc fallacy. Explain why it is that fallacy.
9. “You could be completely for abortion or completely against it. Which will it be?”
Which fallacy is this? Briefly explain your reasoning.
10. “Most people believe it, so it must be true.” Which fallacy is it? Briefly explain your answer.
11. “Look at these 25 smokers who lived long lives, so smoking cannot possibly cause cancer.” Which fallacy is it? Briefly explain your answer.
12. “You cannot prove the multiverse does not exist, therefore it does exist.” Which fallacy is it? Briefly explain your answer.
13. “His ideas cannot be true because he is from Texas.” Which fallacy is it? Briefly explain your answer.
14. Concisely explain the difference between a post hoc and slippery slope fallacy.
15. Review the chapter 4 video or transcript in the logic course of lucidphilosophy.com. Create a Socratic Dialogue on a concept that interests you (e.g. sports, arts, science, philosophy). The dialogue should clearly deepen a concept and include at least four Socratic Questions. For example,
Bob: What is happiness? Well, happiness is being married.
Socrates: Are there any unhappily married people? (This is the the Socratic Question).
Bob: True. I guess happiness is being happily married.
Socrates: Is that circular reasoning since we are using happy to define happy. What makes a marriage a happy one? What is happiness?
Bob: Geez! Ok, I will play your game, Socrates. Happiness is reaching your goals and fulfilling your desires.
Socrates: Can a person be mistaken about which goals will make them happy? For example, Sally believed earning lots of money would make her happy. Now that she has it, she realizes she was mistaken. She is miserable.
Bob: True. I would say earning enough money is important. Isn’t this what Epicurus meant by self-sufficiency?
Socrates: Are there any poor people who are happy?