Write 6 pages thesis on the topic structural properties of graphene. Due to its unique electronic spectrum, graphene has introduced a new paradigm in ‘relativistic’ material physics. Quantum relativistic features, which are usually unobservable in high energy condensed matter physics, can now be easily tested and mimicked in table-top experiments.
Generally, graphene presents a conceptually new kind of materials that are essentially one atom thick. Hence, it provides breakthroughs in low-dimensional physics that have continued to offer new opportunities to develop more applications (Poot et al., 2008). . Before the invention of graphene, there had been many contentions among scholars in physics and material science regarding the number of crystals needed to compose a 3-dimensional structure. It is plausible that any single atomic plane is considered as a 2-D crystal. Consequently, a hundred of such layers make up a structure that can only be termed a 3-D material. The starting of a 3-dimensional structure is entirely obscured. The introduction of graphene has resolved this scientific quagmire. It is now clear that the electronic format undergoes rapid evolution in tandem with the number of layers and eventually approaches the 3-D limit of graphite, which is conventionally at ten layers.
The melting temperature for these thin films shows considerable decreases as the thickness is reduced. Finally, they become unstable and disintegrate as the consistency reaches a few dozens of atomic layers. Atomic monolayers have for long been known as an integral part of large 3-D structures (Delhaes 2001). These include the systems that are anchored epitaxial over other monocrystals by the use of matching lattices. In the absence of such a 3-D structural base, 2-D structures were unknown until the discovery of graphene. Graphene and other free-standing 2-D atomic crystals are easily obtained on top of some non-crystalline substrates. They are also accepted as suspended membranes or in liquid suspensions.
.The crystalline form of graphite is composed of many graphene sheets stacked together
The 2-D crystals in graphene exhibit high crystal structure apart from being continuous in their formation. This structure means that charge carriers in graphene can travel many miles of inter-atomic distances without undergoing any form of scattering. The existence of such kind of crystals can be comprehended fully by reconciling this idea with other theoretical approaches. It can be argued that these 2-dimensional crystalline structures are quenched within a meta-stable state since they have been obtained from 3-dimensional materials.